Graphic design is a branch of science of visual art that can not be separated from the science of psychology. The role of psychology in graphic design, including how a person's psychological response to the visual display nearby. Therefore, studying the
theory of psychology is highly recommended for graphic designers in order to create a visual display of intelligent and effective. One of the psychological theory of the most popular and widely used in graphic design is the Gestalt theory.
Gestalt psychology is a theory which states that a person would tend to classify what he sees around it become a unified whole based on patterns, relations, and similarity. This theory was developed by three scientists from Germany: Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer, and Wolfgang Köhler.
Gestalt in Graphic Design
Gestalt is widely used in graphic design because it explains how visual perception can be formed. Gestalt principles are widely applied in graphic design, among others, is the proximity (closeness of the position), similarity (similar form), closures (closure of), continuity (continuity of the pattern), and figure ground.
1. Proximity (closeness of the position)
Objects with a position adjacent to each other will be grouped as a whole.
The objects on the logo above perceived as a group (the letter 'U') because it has proximity to each other position.
2. Similarity (similar form)
Objects forms and similar elements will be grouped as a whole.
The three triangles in the bottom of the logo actually is part of a bird icon in the logo. But because it has a similar form with another triangle, the object is perceived as part of a group triangles that make up the circle.
3. Closure (closing the form)
An object will be intact even if the form is not closed entirely.
We can recognize that the icons on the WWF logo is a panda. In fact, the picture is incomplete or not fully closed.
4. Continuity (continuous pattern)
The object will be perceived as a group because of the continuity of the pattern.
The circles are perceived as a group because of the continued pattern. Although the actual objects are separated from each other.
5. Figure Ground
An object can be seen as two objects with a touch of foreground and background. Each can be identified as objects without having to form it into a solid.
This is a picture of an object. But with the use of the theory of figure ground, the image is capable of displaying 2 pieces of the object (the object and the silhouette of the face jug)
Gestalt can explain how a person psychologically digest what they see. By understanding the working principle of the tendency of human visual perception by Gestalt, designers can understand how the function of the arrival of a message to the audience.