It is very important for graphic designers to understand the difference between Vector & Bitmap images, it will be very useful in maintaining the image quality is not broken & blur after the editing process on the computer, while doing the printing process. Understanding of the problem will determine the format of the image and print quality.
We often hear the phrase: 'bitmap' in the world of printing and digital photography. Some terms and terms that follow will explain in more detail about the bitmap.
The graph in general can be interpreted as an image or chart. Chart serves to visualize numeric data into a form of image, making it easy to understand. In the graphics world there are many graphic terms that need to be understood by a prospective graphic design. These terms are useful as a tool for better communication for a graphic designer, both computer-based or manually (handmade) graphic designer.
What is the Difference Between Vector and Bitmap Images?
Vector is a digital image-based equations of mathematical calculations. Vector images are generally smaller when compared with bitmap images. Some vector image formats including:. CDR,. AI,. SVG,. EPS, etc.. Vector images combine point and line to be an object, so the image is not to be broken when resized (enlarged or reduced), not as Bitmap images (raster graphics).
Vector image is made up of lines and curves the results of mathematical calculations from several points, thus forming an object image. Vectors displaying an image based on the calculation of geometric coordinates of the image. The appearance of vector images is relatively more rigid than bitmap images, but the quality is not affected by the resolution.
Vector image can be changed into various sizes, and can be printed at the largest resolution without losing it's detail and sharpness. Vector is the best option when working on a printwork which is concerned with the outline sharpness when it's resized. When working with vector images, then we will work on an object based on its mathematical calculations.
Because the monitor displays an image by combining a network point, then both bitmap and vector image is shown as a pixel on the monitor screen. Likewise, when we want to display a vector image into a web page, where we have to do is export vector images into a format supported by most browsers (JPG, GIF, PNG, etc.), then the vector image that has been exported is transformed into a bitmap / raster image , although previously it was created with vector image producing software.
Vector graphics are very different from the bitmap, it represents an image without using a pixel, but with curves and lines are defined in a mathematical equation called a vector. For example to draw a circle: the computer would define the mathematical equation of the circle so that the lines forming a circle. In these lines are colored, forming a circle. 2 ways of representation of each image has its drawbacks and advantages. Bitmap will be very good and effective when used to represent images which are very complex and detailed, but the drawback is: the file size depends on image size and resolution.
Bitmap Images (raster graphics)
Bitmap is a graphical representation of the image containing an array of points that are stored in computer memory (RAM), it was first developed by Microsoft. The value of each point preceded by a single bit of data for black and white images, or more for color images. The density of dots is called a resolution, which shows how sharp the image is displayed, indicated by the number of rows and columns, for example: '300px / inch 'is the standard resolution for good quality prints, the higher the value of the resolution, the better the quality the resulting.
Often the resolution is defined as the width and length of a medium, but in the discussion of image format, resolution is defined as the number of colors or color point in units of a certain size. To display the bitmap image on the monitor or on the printer, the computer translates the bitmap into pixels (on screen) or ink dots (on the printer). These are some of the popular bitmap file formats: BMP, PCX, TIFF. JPEG, GIF, etc..
Bitmap images can also be referred to as raster images (raster graphics) which is a set of small squares (pixels). Pixel dots are placed at specific locations based on color values as a whole will form an image. Bitmap image is actually a mosaic of thousands or even millions of pixels. When working with bitmap images, we will work on the pixels which is the smallest part of an image.
Bitmap appearance is quite sensitive, so that it can produce a color gradation smoothness, and the shadow of an image, bitmap is therefore the most appropriate electronic media when you are working on images with complex blend of shades, such as photograph and digital paintings. But dont forget that it's also dependent on the resolution, because every picture has a certain number of pixels. This means that an image will depend on the number of pixels that formed it. If the size of the enlargement done on small-resolution image, the image will lose detail and Jagged.
the pixels that make up the image has their certain color, and number of colors that may be owned by an image called 'intensity'. Usually the term is 256 colors, high color, 16 million colors (true color) shades of gray (grayscale), as well as black and white (b / w). The more the number of colors in an image then the better the resulting picture. The maximum number of colors of an image can be seen from the file type. Eg jpg image file format will have a maximum of 16 million colors, or gif image file format will have a maximum of 256 colors.
If the bitmap file is enlarged, the image sharpness will be reduced. While on a vector graphics image size does not depend by the size of the file. If the image is enlarged so sharpness is the same as before. The file size of vector graphic images affected the complexity of the vector equation is used. For example there are two pictures of equal size. The first picture is a picture of a circle, while the second image is the image of irregular circular rope. Rope image file size will be larger than the circle image file size. But the lack of vector graphics is not capable of displaying images in detail and complex.
From their respective advantages and disadvantages of both types of images, it's good to consider the purpose of making an object before designing.
Table: Vector VS Bitmap
|Vector Graphic||Bitmap (Raster Graphic)|
|Composed of geometric objects based on mathematical calculations||Composed of objects called pixels|
|Resolution independent||Resolution dependent (depending on the resolution)|
|Resizing doesn't affect the image||Resizing does affect the image (jagged if over the limit of tolerance display)|
|The file size is relatively small||The file size is relatively big|
|Used to illustrate with simple geometric shapes, solid colors / shades without using too much color variation. Suitable for the logo and type design that relies on simplicity of form.||Used for complex images, the pictures that have a variety of colors and shapes, such as photos from the camera shots.|
|Common formats: AI, CDR, FH, EPS||Common formats: PSD, TIF, JPEG, GIF, BMP|
|Common softwares: Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand||Common softwares: Adobe Photoshop, Corel Photopaint, MS Paint|